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What is the difference between cytogenetics and genetics?

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Genetics may be a branch in biology that deals with studying the characteristics that are inherited to subsequent generations through genomes. There are two sub-branches into which genetics are often classified, namely:

  • Cytogenetics
  • Molecular genetics

Both the fields of study are crucial in understanding genetic diseases, therapy, diagnosis, and evolution. genetics is the study of chromosomes and DNA at the molecular level using DNA technology whereas, Cytogenetics is that the study of the amount and structure of chromosomes through microscopic analysis. Genetics studies segments of DNA, genes at the molecular level whereas cytogenetics is that the study of how chromosomes relate to the behavior of cells during the cellular division process.

Molecular genetics utilizes the mechanisms of DNA technology so as to analyze gene mutations. Cytogenetics includes the microscopic examination of chromosomal abnormalities. for instance, a rise or a decrease within the number of chromosomes or translocation of a chromosome to a different. one among the key components inside the nucleus of the cells is that the chromosomes that act as vectors of inheritance. Cytogenetics deals with the study of the connection of modifications in chromosomes and genetic disorders in humans while in genetics, new technologies that combine molecular techniques and cytogenetic concepts are wont to study genetic disorders.

Difference Between Cytogenetics And Molecular Genetics

The main difference between both fields lies in their focus. Listed below are the differences:

Cytogenetics Molecular Genetics

It is the study of numerical and structural variations in the chromosomes with the use of microscopic techniques.

Study of genes using DNA techniques and technology at the level of DNA.

FISH, aCGH, Karyotyping is a few of the techniques used in cytogenetics.

Some of the techniques used in molecular genetics are – DNA amplification, DNA isolation, gene screens, gene cloning, etc.

To know more about cytogenetics and genetics related topics, please visit

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